Handwriting Research & The Use of Multisensory Instruction
A standard expectation in education is that young students learn how to write legible, well-formed letters.
Research shows that handwriting is a foundational skill that can influence students’ reading, writing, language use, and critical thinking. It has an important role in brain development. It is necessary alongside technology in the classroom and promotes success in other academic subjects.
Research also demonstrates that children learn best by engaging in hands-on, multisensory learning that incorporates the five senses.
Another study, conducted by Kast, Meyer, Vogeli, Gross, and Jancke (2007), found that targeting multiple senses during a writing training program helped students with and without developmental dyslexia to improve writing skills.
Multisensory instruction can also help children become more invested in the classroom. Results of a study by Molenda and Bhavangri (2009) stated that students become emotionally involved in multisensory activities in the classroom.
Here are ten multi-sensory/hands-on approaches to help children develop handwriting skills and address problems such as illegible letters/numbers, inconsistency in letter/number size, and letter/number reversals.
1. Surface Tracing
Show your child a letter and ask him/her to pay attention to how it is formed/shaped. Then ask your child to try to trace it from memory on a table, door, window etc.
You can also trace a letter on any surface and have your child guess what it is. Use a large surface or small surface. Write large or small letters.
If your child is really struggling to trace or guess the letters, have her put her hand on yours while you trace the letter or put your hand on hers while you guide her to trace the letter.
You can even trace the letter on your child’s hand and have her guess it and ask her to trace a letter on yours and have you guess it.
Research demonstrates that having children attempt to write/draw letters from memory is an effective strategy when trying to teach or trying to improve letter formation.
2. Stencil – Write the letters/numbers in stencils to naturally practice correct formation
3. Ask your child to trace letters/numbers with arrow cues.
Students can trace with arrow cues on a piece of paper or a dry erase board. Once they have the hang of that (may take several sessions), ask them to trace without arrow cues.
You can also get a handwriting workbook such as Lots and Lots of Letter Tracing
or a dry-erase book where your child can erase and rewrite the letters/numbers as many times as they want.
4. Look at the letter and then write it on paper or a dry-erase board from memory.
If a child struggles to keep the letters in the lines because of trouble with motor control or perceptual difficulties, provide them with wide-lined paper.
Young children (or those with small hands) may also benefit from shorter/child-size pens/pencils.
5. Use the Wet-Dry-Try Method
The Wet-Dry-Try method is a component of the Handwriting Without Tears Program, a research-based handwriting intervention program.
How does the Wet-Dry-Try method work?
First. the adult writes the letter on a chalkboard.
Next. the child uses a sponge and then their finger to go over the letter to make a nice wet version of the letter.
Then the child lets the letter dry and traces over the letter with chalk.
See detailed instructions below.
Here is an image of the app.
6. Feel/touch letter formations.
8. Talk about letter formation.
For example, describe what a letter looks like-“a B has a straight line and two curves coming out to the right, a C looks like a crescent moon, an E looks like a comb with some missing teeth, a V is two slanted lines that meet at the bottom, etc.
Describe it to your child and have your child describe it to you. Talk about letter formation while you look at, write, or trace a letter.
9. Use mnemonic devices for b/d reversals.
Mnemonic devices are research-based techniques a person can use to help them improve their ability to remember something. Here are some examples of mnemonic devices for b/d reversals.
You May Also Be Interested In: Mnemonic Examples: Everything You Need to Know (And How to Use Them) by magneticmemorymethod.com
10. Write letters in clay
Your child can use the point or back end of a pencil/pen or other carving tool. This will allow them to feel resistance when writing which is helpful for feeling letter formations and building hand strength.
Your child can look as they write or look (only if needed) and they try to write from memory.
11. Incorporate music and movement into learning
Research demonstrates that music enhances learning and a component of multisensory learning (discussed above) often includes kinesthetic learning (learning that takes place by the student carrying out physical activities).
Check out these Handwriting Without Tears moves.
Here is a fun song that has the letters of the alphabet singing, dancing, and waving!
Keep in Mind the Following when Working with Students on Writing:
Keep practice sessions short (2 to 10 minutes for younger children or children who get easily frustrated and 10 to 15 minutes for older children or children who can work for longer periods without frustration), unless the child is eager to keep going.
For suggestions on ways to encourage children to complete tasks or assignments they do not want to do, read 3 Ways to Use Timers to Encourage Homework and Chore Completion and How to Use Schedules to Improve Children’s Behavior.
Remember to always stay calm when working with a child or student, even if you think they should be getting something that they are not getting.
If you get frustrated with them, they may start to feel anxious, angry, inferior, stupid, etc. which will lead to a less productive learning session.
Want to know if the strategies recommended in this article are working?
Ask your child to write the alphabet and the numbers 1 – 10. Check how many letters have the correct form, positioning, and are clearly recognizable. Implement the strategies in this article two to five times weekly.
At the end of a chosen time period (let’s say 10 weeks) reassess your child’s ability to correctly write 26 letters of the alphabet and numbers 1 – 10.
If you see improvement, you know the interventions are working.
It is important for children to work on mastering one letter before moving on to the next. Mastery means they can correctly write the letter on a piece of paper from memory.
Additional Information About Writing Support for Your Child
Studies estimate that between 10 to 30 percent of elementary school children struggle with handwriting (Karlsdottir and Stephansson 2002, as cited in Feder and Majnemer 2007).
If you are concerned that your child is struggling with handwriting, talk to your child’s school to find out if they share the same concern.
If you are still unsure you can check with your child’s doctor or review handwriting milestones and guidelines such as the ones at North Shore Pediatric Therapy which indicate that by six years old children typically should be able to copy or write their name and be able to write the alphabet without omitting letters.
It also states that children are expected to write the alphabet in uppercase and lowercase letters without switching forms throughout and should also use appropriate capital letters and punctuation to write complete sentences.
By seven years old children are expected to write letters in the correct formation and position, particularly letters where reversals are common (example: ‘b’ versus ‘d’).
If your child is having trouble with letter formation, handwriting, or acquiring other academic skills, despite consistent practice and guidance, inform your child’s school and/or doctor. They can refer you to the appropriate professionals to determine what might be interfering with your child’s progress and what additional strategies might help.
An occupational therapist can assess posture, pencil grip, visual perception, hand-strength, etc. (all important skills for writing development) and work with your child to address specific areas of need.
Occupational therapists can be found in your child’s schools or your community. Contact your child’s school, county, or insurance provider for more information on occupational therapists.
Thank you for visiting Education and Behavior. A research-based online library keeping parents/caregivers, educators, counselors, and therapists on the same page.
You Might Also Like: The Best Way to Teach Kids to Write by Preschool Inspirations
Multisensory Tools to Help with Letter and Number Formation
You can find more tools for learning to write in our Multisensory Store.
Rachel Wise is a certified school psychologist and licensed behavior specialist with a Master’s Degree in Education. She is also the head author and CEO at educationandbehavior.com, a site for parents, caregivers, educators, counselors, and therapists to find effective, research-based strategies that work for children. Rachel has been working with individuals with academic and behavioral needs for over 20 years and has a passion for making a positive difference in the lives of children and the adults who support them. For Rachel’s top behavioral strategies all in one place, check out her book, Building Confidence and Improving Behavior in Children, a Guide for Parents and Teachers. If you want Rachel to write for your business, offer behavioral or academic consultation, or speak at your facility about research-based strategies that support children, email her at email@example.com.